Atlas of Travel and Tourism Development
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In the late s and the ski centres like Chourcheval and Tignes evolved in France. In Austria, Lech am Arlberg was the first ski destination. In the s and the s the ski-boom was still continuing because of the creation of new fully-integrated ski stations and the technical changes to metal skis. Many skiing areas were closed in the s because the market gets saturated and there was a high competition for customers. As a result, many bad-managed ski resorts were closed down. These new destinations offering much cheaper ski vacation than the traditional Alpine destinations.
Meanwhile, new types of skiing and some ski-related trend sports have gained more and more popularity. Cross-country skiing, mono-ski, ski touring and snowboarding gained more and more supporters. Traditional ski resorts have also to cater for non-skiers, who need. The estimated number of skiers worldwide was at least seventy million, with Europe on its peak, followed by the USA.
The market expands rapidly, especially in Eastern Europe. In future, it seems that destinations of the Polish Tatra, Czech Republic, Romania and Russia will attract more people than the traditional skiing resorts in the Alpine regions. However, Europeans even travelling more and more to North American ski destinations because they are more stable snowfall patterns. Unreliable and unpredictable patterns of snowfall are the results of the climate change, triggering costs for plastic snow and offend guests.
Low —lying ski resorts in Austria are likely to be worst affected, the snow line will rise between and feet in the next 40 years. Under the worst-case scenario, none of our ski resort will be economically viable by The tourism patterns in our country will have to change and to adapt to the climate change. Due to the climate change new types of tourism in Austria shall arise. The ski resort Schladming, located in the North-West of the Styria, were one of the most famous ski areas in Austria.
The city is located nearby the Planai, the famous skiing mountain. The Planai cable cars are the flagship of Austrians winter resorts. Many innovations were established at the ski resort, and many other Austrian resorts followed their example. Especially the development of snow cannons was a milestone for the Austrian. However, the effects of the climate change are visible for the Schladming ski resort. Recently published studies have shown that the climate change has severe effects.
The number of hours, where plastic snow can be produced is declined to 60 per cent between and The data shows also, how important the micro-climate and the relief for the snow are. In return, the requirements for the snow production are better in low-lying areas than in meter height due to the narrow valley. Snow and the winter experience are a major factor for the guests in the ski resorts. In future, changes in the guest behaviour will be the result of the climate change: tendency to high- lying ski resorts, holidays in snow-safe months and bookings will be handled short-dated.
There will be also a need for additional programs if there is no snow. Read Free For 30 Days. Travel and Tourism Development. Describes the development of tourism since ancient times. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Overview of the travel and tourism development Within this essay I want to give you an overview how tourism has established over thousands of years and I want to point out the historical connection of nowadays destination. In the next chapter I want to list a few motivations for the ancient travel and how they created destination awareness.
The Greeks have tried to conquer the Persian Empire under Alexander the great and as a result of these wars they explored unknown areas in the Middle East and founded new cities like Alexandria, stunning monuments like the Seven Wonders of the World and destination myths. However, these travellers were technically recorders, not explorers because someone else actually got there first. I can summarize that the motivations for travel in the ancient world were military, sport events, religion, cultural interests, political and commercial interests and finally personal needs.
But most of the roman roads surpassed till the 19th century. Only military and religious purposes enabled people to face severe risks like bandits to travel over long distances. In the thirteenth century trade fairs pushed the travel in Europe and old trade routes become re-established. From now on the travel was focused on the New World.
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Around the culture and nature related travel was on a high level and so Switzerland found its way to a popular destination, facilitated by new modes of transport on land and the steamers on Swiss lakes. Travellers could reach nearly every region in Western Europe by train except from Spain, Portugal and southern Italy.
In common, this era was known for luxury: The famous Orient Express was founded; luxury liners like the Titanic were constructed and palace-style hotels like the Ritz were built. All the wealthy Europe populated the French Riviera, which was very posh for them, and tuned this area to a large resort at the end of the 30s. The Second World War declined the development of tourism, but after the war tourism was accelerated. A company, Space Adventures Inc. Virgin Galactic, founded by Richard Branson, maybe will be the future of space tourism, they providing privately built spaceships and planned first commercial flights in the year Examples for tourism development a Ski resorts This example describes how ski resort has become very popular and very important for the tourism worldwide.
The growth was accelerated after the Second World War because of the improvements in equipment and clothing, so that skiing became more comfortable and safer. Traditional ski resorts have also to cater for non-skiers, who need facilities for winter walking and bobsleigh. Nevertheless, ski resorts have to face with the problems of the climate change. It is estimated that between 37 and 56 per cent of all ski areas in Europe will vanish due to the climate change. Especially the development of snow cannons was a milestone for the Austrian winter tourism in the early 70s.
Effects ffects of the climate change: However, the effects of the climate change are visible for the Schladming ski resort. Marjorie Tuscano. Sai Kishore Nellore. Chinomso Nwamadu. Ali Bhatti. World Economic Forum.
Habib Ahmed. Bhumit Bhatt. Since the Roman Empire declined, long distance travel on the scale of the Romans was not possible till the 18th century. Only military and religious purposes enabled people to face. Sometimes those purposes were combined like in the Crusades. There is little evidence about the travel in the middle ages excepted of information on pilgrimages and travel for political, diplomatic or military purposes.
The only some kind of non-domestic travel for individuals were pilgrimages to Rome, Jerusalem and Compostela. Long-distance travel was nearly impossible in the early medieval period because the Silk Road were cut and sea travel become difficult because of pirates. In the thirteenth century. The Champagne and other regions were the host of these faires were goods from the Near East were exchanged for cloth. Big rivers like the Rhine, Rhone and Danube were used as a trade route; also new passes over the Alps were founded. In the north of Germany, the Hanseatic League with its. From now on the travel was focused on the New.
However, travel was still dominated by trade and exploration. The normal European would seldom travel over two days. The Renaissance continued with the pre-existing patterns of festivals, markets, fairs and events and so boosted the domestic tourism. After the. However, until the eighteenth century travel was basically undertaken by small and wealthy elite for education and official purposes.
Domestic travel for pleasure began with the emergence of fashionable spas and seaside resorts Bath and Brighton. The cure forces of thermal water were even known by the Romans, but their knowledge disappeared with their decline. In Scotland, late Victorian and Edwardian entrepreneurs founded hydro hotels for health tourism in the areas of Dunblane and Crieff. In Europe tourism was mainly based on destination on the coast because most of the bigger cities were located nearby the coast.
However, just a small amount of people could afford the search for exclusive and undiscovered destinations — a process which developed the tourism in areas like the French Riviera. In the the process was underlined by the popularity of sunbathing. Around the culture and nature related travel was on a high level and so Switzerland found its way to a popular destination, facilitated by new modes of transport on land and the. The first package tour for skiing was organized by Henry Lunn in the s.
Very little overseas travel took place, but just for a small amount of wealthy people, but travelling remained still dangerous and expensive for a long period of time. Tax and tolls and high exchange rates forced travellers to take enormous amounts of money with them, also gold, and made them vulnerable for bandits.
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Nevertheless the most important innovation for travel in the early 19th century was the development of a railway network in Europe, with help by the foundation of the steam locomotion. Travellers could reach nearly every region in Western Europe by train except. The railways took place in the Colonies and so India, southern Africa and parts of North America established a functional network of railways.
In the early 19s some kind of a wealthy middle class established in Europe. This new society joined the aristocracy at the seaside resorts and there was still a distinction between them who could afford long-term holidays and them who just can stay overnight.
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All these new travel patterns lead to an extensive hotel-building in Europe especially in Switzerland and in America. In the early 20s, due to the influence of the North American trade and the replacement of sail by steam, the transatlantic passenger cruises established — the era of the great ocean liners was born. In common, this era was known for luxury: The famous Orient Express was founded; luxury liners like the Titanic were constructed and palace-style hotels like the Ritz.
The luxury era was ended by the fast growing technical advances, efficiency replaced luxury. Finalized was this process after the Second World War. Meanwhile, the growth of commercial aviation was stimulated by the World wars. The first city-to-city connection was from Paris to London. At the year more than 22 passengers were carried over the Channel and the business was growing on.
Intercontinental travel developed rapidly, pushed by the growing air business. Business conference travel was founded by American business man and the holiday camp was invented. Incoming tourism in the UK rose from in to 1. By Spain become the leading tourism destination in Europe with 14 million visitors per year, but later this number was quadrupled. In return, travel was still limited by a small number of wealthy people. The development of the budget airlines in the 90s amplified this trend.
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New travel patterns have evolved: active holidays, adventure and ecotourism, fashion for spa holidays, VFR Visiting Friends and Relatives and cultural tourism. During the s, Europe and North America continued to dominate world tourism both as generators and as destinations. Three quarters of all tourism in the world continues to be domestic, just 20 per cent of all flights were long-haul.
In the future the most important innovation will be the development of space travel. Till the year , just a small amount of people got the possibility to travel into space like the American millionaire Dennis Tito. In future, they expect to offer stays in an orbital hotel. The development of space travel is hard to predict, but for sure there are enormous cost for the construction of space hotels and their maintenance.
In addition, there are environmental concerns like atmospheric pollution. In the future, cybertourism an electronically stimulated travel experience may become an alternative to physical travel. The technology has to develop further, otherwise that trend will not be possible. This example describes how ski resort has become very popular and very important for the tourism worldwide. I have chosen this example because ski resorts are the most important tourism push factors for the Austrian winter tourism.
Winter holidays become very fashionable as resorts, like St. Moritz with its famous bobsleigh, emerged from Alpine summer tourism to winter tourism. The first purpose-built resort was Megeve in The growth was accelerated after the Second World War because of the. Due to other technical innovations, ski resorts were more accessible. In the late s and the ski centres like Chourcheval and Tignes evolved in France. In Austria, Lech am Arlberg was the first ski destination.
In the s and the s the ski-boom was still continuing because of the creation of new fully-integrated ski stations and the technical changes to metal skis. Many skiing areas were closed in the s because the market gets saturated and there was a high competition for customers. As a result, many bad-managed ski resorts were closed down. These new destinations offering much cheaper ski vacation than the traditional Alpine destinations. Meanwhile, new types of skiing and some ski-related trend sports have gained more and more popularity.
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This is due to many obvious factors that enhance tourism including ability time and money , mobility, motivation, and even government initiatives aimed at social tourism. For the potential local tourist, there are many competing interests in life: the need to go to school, servicing of mortgages etc. In many African countries exists, instead, a culture of survival whereby the idea of travel is considered a luxury that many people cannot afford or they take such activities for granted. For instance Boniface , p. Tourism is not a basic survival necessity. This has been attributed to the appreciation of domestic tourism as an effective means to enhance stabilized revenue flows in low seasons, of enhancing inter-ethnic dialogue, a means of transferring wealth and investment from the developed regions to the less developed areas, and a means to keep the hotels open throughout the low season something that it has failed to accomplish among others.
The domestic client is socially oriented rather than activity based, desiring experiences in a group. However, many lean more towards psychocentrism as evidenced by their search for symbols of home like food and drinks rather than being adventuresome. For instance, those who travel from Nairobi to the Kenyan coast for hedonism end up doing the same activities they would have otherwise done in Nairobi. In other words they change the usual environment momentarily without much change in the activities: shopping, alcohol, roasted meat, and clubbing.
While an international tourist may feel safe and secure within the tourist ghettos and enclaves, his Kenyan counterpart will find such an environment to be boring, encouraging them to venture out to find freedom and mingle with other Kenyans in night clubs, shopping malls, restaurants, pubs, and other entertainment spots. Being cost conscious, little or no money is spent on other services deemed unnecessary apart from key services e. However, more is spent on food and beverages than on excursions suggesting that such a client actually arrives lacking the motivation to explore the destination extensively.
Instead, the domestic client makes shorter stays and usually visits a particular place for a particular reason. A case in point is the domestic conference tourist who stayed on average of 0. For instance a study done in Mtwapa area, North Coast, established that non-classified hotels in Mtwapa town received most of their guests This could be attributed to the fact that the hotels are of lower standards, and are price friendly to the domestic market.
Thus, Pierret noted that the domestic traveller seeks the best price-quality ratio, or often the lowest possible price, in all segments of the tourism value chain: accommodation, food services, tourism activities, shopping, etc. This means that the domestic traveller is likely to use local services and products: home stays, local guesthouses, lodgings, local foods, and local photographers, with the exception of buying souvenirs.
This may be one way of diffusing tourism activity among local entrepreneurs albeit to a smaller level. Thus, the international tourist has compelled the investor to offer what they want infrastructure, food, language, marketing messages…. It is about going somewhere away from home. Pierret rightfully observed that domestic tourism is practiced more in a sedentary staying in the same place than a nomadic manner.
Once one has explored their own backyard extensively, then they are able to move elsewhere in search of new experiences. With this, it is therefore possible to extend the tourism offer beyond the traditional tourism destinations since they have a greater tolerance for basic services. This is not to say that quality is not a factor for the domestic clients but it shows that with a minimum service requirement, it may be easier to satisfy and handle the domestic tourist. For instance, in areas such as the beaches, day time domestic tourists are not so distracted by lack of essential amenities like toilets, shower tabs, and appropriate changing rooms among other services.
They may not really see anything wrong with recreating alongside litter. Along the sea front, African populations mostly congregate above the high water mark clearly shunning the beach sun and sand while a few will be in the water sea.
Many adult Kenyans frequent these places preferring to be inactive rather than participate in recreational activities such as water sports, which confirm our assertion that they have not yet embraced the tourism culture. They prefer to shelter themselves away from the hot sun while gazing into the horizon. Those of Arabic and Asian decent often travel with their own vehicles to the beach e. Nyali and Mama Ngina in groups of three or four but hardly leave the vehicles and may be spotted listening to music, eating their own packed food, while some spend their time chewing miraa.
One notable absence on the beach for the Kenyan population is the lack of sunbathing activity. Few people, especially adult women, can be spotted wearing beach attire as the majority prefer to be fully dressed. Moreover, while it may be easier to identify a foreign tourist: by skin colour, clothing, carrying of brochures, maps and cameras, walking in groups, and having a tour guide by their side, the same may not be easily said of a local tourist who blends into the environment; the domestic tourist does not easily stand out from the crowd.
Many local tourists also visit the same places frequented by foreign tourists — terrestrial and marine parks etc. Sindiga , p. This has greatly contributed to crowding in touristic destinations and constrained the tourism offer. Therefore, the question to ask is: who actually is setting the pace for tourism practices in the country — domestic or international tourist?
Indeed, traditionally travel intermediaries have played a pivotal role in destination management. But with domestic tourists travelling independently, it is possible that they can introduce and sustain new tourism practices in the country, albeit to a lesser level. What is evident, however, is that it tends to trail the international tourism trends and practices.
Greater geographical dispersion of tourists can be aided by the impact of car ownership, allowing people beyond the parameters of fixed modes of transport. Most Kenyan parks are remotely located requiring one to have a self driven vehicle or to rely on a tour van to access them. In Kenya, this may still be a challenge.
For instance in , the number of motor cars personal vehicles in Kenya is estimated to be , with approximately 40, new vehicles being added to the roads yearly Government of Kenya, This may not be a substantial number to warrant mass domestic tourism in the country. According to World Bank, there were 14 passenger cars in Kenya per people compared to in France in This includes road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people including the driver World Bank, Some Tour operators sampled for this research indicated that they do not target domestic tourists at all so could not participate in the study.
In addition, many of the domestic tourism safaris advertised beginning and ending their journey in Nairobi Kieti et al. The KWS has also encouraged domestic travel through the provision of a bus and guided visits to the Nairobi and Lake Nakuru National Parks every weekend including public holidays to encourage Kenyans to take part in tourism. The direct economic impact generated by domestic tourism is indeed insignificant in terms of the conservation fee. This is not to diminish the significance of domestic tourism, but to illustrate the importance of international tourism in financially supporting protected areas of the country.
Despite these facts, Akama and World Tourism Organization observed that domestic tourism may have a greater impact on local economies and local development whereby they are more likely to buy from local vendors than foreign tourists. Future research should be done on the contribution of domestic tourism to the accommodation sector. Pierret noted that knowledge and proximity of the destination, and lower cost of transport for domestic tourists, brings about an entirely new series of consequences.
This includes but is not limited to involvement of all social strata, from the wealthiest to more modest but stable incomes; giving rise to a large diversity in demand in terms of accommodation and tourism products as well as activities and destinations. However, the unit expenditure is markedly lower than in international tourism, especially interregional tourism, but the overall volume of expenditure remains higher.