Created in China: The Great New Leap Forward (Media, Culture and Social Change in Asia Series)
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Mao himself claimed that a total of , people were killed in attacks on "counter-revolutionaries" during the years — The Mao government is generally credited with eradicating both consumption and production of opium during the s using unrestrained repression and social reform. Remaining opium production shifted south of the Chinese border into the Golden Triangle region.
Whereas the three-anti campaign was a focused purge of government, industrial and party officials, the five-anti campaign set its sights slightly broader, targeting capitalist elements in general. Mao insisted that minor offenders be criticised and reformed or sent to labour camps, "while the worst among them should be shot".
These campaigns took several hundred thousand additional lives, the vast majority via suicide. In Shanghai, suicide by jumping from tall buildings became so commonplace that residents avoided walking on the pavement near skyscrapers for fear that suicides might land on them.
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For example, in his biography of Mao, Philip Short notes that in the Yan'an Rectification Movement , Mao gave explicit instructions that "no cadre is to be killed", but in practice allowed security chief Kang Sheng to drive opponents to suicide and that "this pattern was repeated throughout his leadership of the People's Republic". Following the consolidation of power, Mao launched the First Five-Year Plan — , which aimed to end Chinese dependence upon agriculture in order to become a world power. With the Soviet Union 's assistance, new industrial plants were built and agricultural production eventually fell [ clarification needed ] to a point where industry was beginning to produce enough capital that China no longer needed the USSR's support.
Mao also launched a phase of rapid collectivization. The CPC introduced price controls as well as a Chinese character simplification aimed at increasing literacy. Large-scale industrialization projects were also undertaken. Programs pursued during this time include the Hundred Flowers Campaign , in which Mao indicated his supposed willingness to consider different opinions about how China should be governed.
Given the freedom to express themselves, liberal and intellectual Chinese began opposing the Communist Party and questioning its leadership. This was initially tolerated and encouraged. After a few months, however, Mao's government reversed its policy and persecuted those who had criticised the party, totaling perhaps ,, [ citation needed ] as well as those who were merely alleged to have been critical, in what is called the Anti-Rightist Movement. Authors such as Jung Chang have alleged that the Hundred Flowers Campaign was merely a ruse to root out "dangerous" thinking.
Li Zhisui, Mao's physician, suggested that Mao had initially seen the policy as a way of weakening opposition to him within the party and that he was surprised by the extent of criticism and the fact that it came to be directed at his own leadership. The Hundred Flowers movement led to the condemnation, silencing, and death of many citizens, also linked to Mao's Anti-Rightist Movement, resulting in deaths possibly in the millions.
In January , Mao launched the second Five-Year Plan , known as the Great Leap Forward , a plan intended as an alternative model for economic growth to the Soviet model focusing on heavy industry that was advocated by others in the party. Under this economic program, the relatively small agricultural collectives that had been formed to date were rapidly merged into far larger people's communes , and many of the peasants were ordered to work on massive infrastructure projects and on the production of iron and steel.
Some private food production was banned, and livestock and farm implements were brought under collective ownership. Under the Great Leap Forward, Mao and other party leaders ordered the implementation of a variety of unproven and unscientific new agricultural techniques by the new communes.
In an effort to win favour with their superiors and avoid being purged, each layer in the party hierarchy exaggerated the amount of grain produced under them. Based upon the fabricated success, party cadres were ordered to requisition a disproportionately high amount of that fictitious harvest for state use, primarily for use in the cities and urban areas but also for export. The result, compounded in some areas by drought and in others by floods, was that rural peasants were left with little food for themselves and many millions starved to death in the Great Chinese Famine.
China's population suffered from the Great Famine during the late 20th century. This came as a result of the lack of food production and distribution to the population of China. The people of urban areas in China were given food stamps each month, but the people of rural areas were expected to grow their own crops and give some of the crops back to the government.
The deaths in the rural parts of China out ranked the ones in the Urban cities. Also, the government of China continued to export food to other countries during the Great Famine; this food could have been used to feed the starving citizens. These factors lead to the catastrophic death of about 52 million citizens. The extent of Mao's knowledge of the severity of the situation has been disputed. Mao's physician believed that he may have been unaware of the extent of the famine, partly due to a reluctance to criticise his policies, and the willingness of his staff to exaggerate or outright fake reports regarding food production.
The idea that the state mistakenly took too much grain from the countryside because it assumed that the harvest was much larger than it was is largely a myth—at most partially true for the autumn of only. In most cases the party knew very well that it was starving its own people to death. At a secret meeting in the Jinjiang Hotel in Shanghai dated March 25, , Mao specifically ordered the party to procure up to one third of all the grain, much more than had ever been the case.
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At the meeting he announced that "To distribute resources evenly will only ruin the Great Leap Forward. When there is not enough to eat, people starve to death. It is better to let half of the people die so that the other half can eat their fill. Professor Emeritus Thomas P. Bernstein of Columbia University offered his view on Mao's statement on starvation in the March 25, , meeting:. Some scholars believe that this shows Mao's readiness to accept mass death on an immense scale. My own view is that this is an instance of Mao's use of hyperbole, another being his casual acceptance of death of half the population during a nuclear war.
In other contexts, Mao did not in fact accept mass death. Zhou's Chronology shows that in October , Mao expressed real concern that 40, people in Yunnan had starved to death p. Shortly after the March 25 meeting, he worried about Bernstein also discussed Mao's change of attitudes during different phases of the Great Leap Forward:. In late autumn , Mao Zedong strongly condemned widespread practices of the Great Leap Forward GLF such as subjecting peasants to exhausting labour without adequate food and rest, which had resulted in epidemics, starvation and deaths.
At that time Mao explicitly recognized that anti-rightist pressures on officialdom were a major cause of "production at the expense of livelihood. After the July clash at Lushan with Peng Dehuai , Mao revived the GLF in the context of a new, extremely harsh anti-rightist campaign, which he relentlessly promoted into the spring of together with the radical policies that he previously condemned.
Not until spring did Mao again express concern about abnormal deaths and other abuses, but he failed to apply the pressure needed to stop them. Given what he had already learned about the costs to the peasants of GLF extremism, the Chairman should have known that the revival of GLF radicalism would exact a similar or even bigger price.
Instead, he wilfully ignored the lessons of the first radical phase for the sake of achieving extreme ideological and developmental goals. In Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine , Jasper Becker notes that Mao was dismissive of reports he received of food shortages in the countryside and refused to change course, believing that peasants were lying and that rightists and kulaks were hoarding grain.
He refused to open state granaries,  and instead launched a series of "anti-grain concealment" drives that resulted in numerous purges and suicides. Many peasants accused of hiding food were tortured and beaten to death. Whatever the cause of the disaster, Mao lost esteem among many of the top party cadres. He was eventually forced to abandon the policy in , and he lost political power to moderate leaders such as Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping.
Mao, however, supported by national propaganda, claimed that he was only partly to blame for the famine. The Great Leap Forward was a tragedy for the vast majority of the Chinese. Although the steel quotas were officially reached, almost all of the supposed steel made in the countryside was iron, as it had been made from assorted scrap metal in home-made furnaces with no reliable source of fuel such as coal.
This meant that proper smelting conditions could not be achieved. We took all the furniture, pots, and pans we had in our house, and all our neighbours did likewise. We put everything in a big fire and melted down all the metal. The worst of the famine was steered towards enemies of the state. The most vulnerable section of China's population, around five per cent, were those whom Mao called ' enemies of the people '. Anyone who had in previous campaigns of repression been labeled a 'black element' was given the lowest priority in the allocation of food.
China’s Think-Tank Great Leap Forward
Landlords, rich peasants, former members of the nationalist regime, religious leaders, rightists, counter-revolutionaries and the families of such individuals died in the greatest numbers. Following Peng's criticism of the Great Leap Forward, Mao orchestrated a purge of Peng and his supporters, stifling criticism of the Great Leap policies. Senior officials who reported the truth of the famine to Mao were branded as "right opportunists. Years later the CPC would conclude that as many as six million people were wrongly punished in the campaign.
The number of deaths by starvation during the Great Leap Forward is deeply controversial. Until the mids, when official census figures were finally published by the Chinese Government, little was known about the scale of the disaster in the Chinese countryside, as the handful of Western observers allowed access during this time had been restricted to model villages where they were deceived into believing that the Great Leap Forward had been a great success.
There was also an assumption that the flow of individual reports of starvation that had been reaching the West, primarily through Hong Kong and Taiwan, must have been localised or exaggerated as China was continuing to claim record harvests and was a net exporter of grain through the period. Because Mao wanted to pay back early to the Soviets debts totalling 1. Censuses were carried out in China in , and The first attempt to analyse this data to estimate the number of famine deaths was carried out by American demographer Dr.
Judith Banister and published in Given the lengthy gaps between the censuses and doubts over the reliability of the data, an accurate figure is difficult to ascertain. Nevertheless, Banister concluded that the official data implied that around 15 million excess deaths incurred in China during —61, and that based on her modelling of Chinese demographics during the period and taking account of assumed under-reporting during the famine years, the figure was around 30 million.
The official statistic is 20 million deaths, as given by Hu Yaobang. On the international front, the period was dominated by the further isolation of China. The Sino-Soviet split resulted in Nikita Khrushchev 's withdrawal of all Soviet technical experts and aid from the country. The split concerned the leadership of world communism. The USSR had a network of Communist parties it supported; China now created its own rival network to battle it out for local control of the left in numerous countries.
The split helped to determine the framework of the Second Cold War in general, and influenced the course of the Second Vietnam War in particular. The split resulted from Nikita Khrushchev 's more moderate Soviet leadership after the death of Stalin in March Only Albania openly sided with China, thereby forming an alliance between the two countries which would last until after Mao's death in Warned that the Soviets had nuclear weapons, Mao minimized the threat.
Becker says that "Mao believed that the bomb was a 'paper tiger', declaring to Khrushchev that it would not matter if China lost million people in a nuclear war: the other half of the population would survive to ensure victory". Stalin had established himself as the successor of "correct" Marxist thought well before Mao controlled the Communist Party of China , and therefore Mao never challenged the suitability of any Stalinist doctrine at least while Stalin was alive.
Upon the death of Stalin, Mao believed perhaps because of seniority that the leadership of Marxist doctrine would fall to him. The resulting tension between Khrushchev at the head of a politically and militarily superior government , and Mao believing he had a superior understanding of Marxist ideology eroded the previous patron-client relationship between the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the CPC.
Partly surrounded by hostile American military bases in South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan , China was now confronted with a new Soviet threat from the north and west. Both the internal crisis and the external threat called for extraordinary statesmanship from Mao, but as China entered the new decade the statesmen of the People's Republic were in hostile confrontation with each other.
During the early s, Mao became concerned with the nature of post China.
He saw that the revolution and Great Leap Forward had replaced the old ruling elite with a new one. He was concerned that those in power were becoming estranged from the people they were to serve. Mao believed that a revolution of culture would unseat and unsettle the "ruling class" and keep China in a state of "perpetual revolution" that, theoretically, would serve the interests of the majority, rather than a tiny and privileged elite. They attempted to marginalise Mao by taking control of economic policy and asserting themselves politically as well.
Some scholars, such as Mobo Gao, claim the case for this is overstated. Believing that certain liberal bourgeois elements of society continued to threaten the socialist framework, groups of young people known as the Red Guards struggled against authorities at all levels of society and even set up their own tribunals. Chaos reigned in much of the nation, and millions were persecuted. During the Cultural Revolution, nearly all of the schools and universities in China were closed, and the young intellectuals living in cities were ordered to the countryside to be "re-educated" by the peasants, where they performed hard manual labour and other work.
The Cultural Revolution led to the destruction of much of China's traditional cultural heritage and the imprisonment of a huge number of Chinese citizens, as well as the creation of general economic and social chaos in the country. It is estimated that hundreds of thousands of people, perhaps millions, perished in the violence of the Cultural Revolution. When Mao was informed of such losses, particularly that people had been driven to suicide, he is alleged to have commented: "People who try to commit suicide—don't attempt to save them!
China is such a populous nation, it is not as if we cannot do without a few people. Said Xie Fuzhi , national police chief: "Don't say it is wrong of them to beat up bad persons: if in anger they beat someone to death, then so be it. It was during this period that Mao chose Lin Biao , who seemed to echo all of Mao's ideas, to become his successor. Lin was later officially named as Mao's successor. By , however, a divide between the two men had become apparent.
Official history in China states that Lin was planning a military coup or an assassination attempt on Mao. Lin Biao died on September 13, in a plane crash over the air space of Mongolia, presumably as he fled China, probably anticipating his arrest. At this time, Mao lost trust in many of the top CPC figures. The highest-ranking Soviet Bloc intelligence defector, Lt. Despite being considered a feminist figure by some and a supporter of women's rights, documents released by the US Department of State in show that Mao declared women to be a "nonsense" in , in conversation with Kissinger, joking that "China is a very poor country.
We don't have much. What we have in excess is women Let them go to your place. They will create disasters. That way you can lessen our burdens. When Mao first tasted mangoes in he was enthused, describing them as a "spiritual time bomb". They cried out enthusiastically and sang with wild abandonment. Tears swelled up in their eyes, and they again and again sincerely wished that our most beloved Great Leader lived then thousand years without bounds They all made phone calls to their own work units to spread this happy news; and they also organised all kinds of celebratory activities all night long, and arrived at [the national leadership compound] Zhongnanhai despite the rain to report the good news, and to express their loyalty to the Great Leader Chairman Mao.
One of the mangoes was sent to the Beijing Textile Factory,  whose revolutionary committee organised a rally in the mangoes' honour. Altars were erected to prominently display the fruit; when the mango peel began to rot after a few days, the fruit was peeled and boiled in a pot of water. Workers then filed by and each was given a spoonful of mango water.
The revolutionary committee also made a wax replica of the mango, and displayed this as a centrepiece in the factory. There followed several months of "mango fever", as the fruit became a focus of a "boundless loyalty" campaign for Chairman Mao. More replica mangoes were created and the replicas were sent on tour around Beijing and elsewhere in China. Many revolutionary committees visited the mangoes in Beijing from outlying provinces; approximately half a million people greeted the replicas when they arrived in Chengdu. Badges and wall posters featuring the mangoes and Mao were produced in the millions.
Han, saw the mango and said it was nothing special and looked just like a sweet potato; he was put on trial for malicious slander, found guilty, paraded publicly throughout the town, and then executed with one shot to the head. It has been claimed that Mao used the mangoes to express support for the workers who would go to whatever lengths necessary to end the factional fighting among students, and a "prime example of Mao's strategy of symbolic support".
In , Mao declared the Cultural Revolution to be over, although various historians in and outside of China mark the end of the Cultural Revolution—as a whole or in part—in , following Mao's death and the arrest of the Gang of Four. Mao remained passive as various factions within the Communist Party mobilised for the power struggle anticipated after his death. The Cultural Revolution is often looked at in all scholarly circles as a greatly disruptive period for China.
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While one-tenth of Chinese people—an estimated million—did suffer during the period,  some scholars, such as Lee Feigon and Mobo Gao, claim there were many great advances, and in some sectors the Chinese economy continued to outperform the West. During the Cultural Revolution, China detonated its first H-Bomb in , launched the Dong Fang Hong satellite on January 30, , commissioned its first nuclear submarines and made various advances in science and technology.
Healthcare was free, and living standards in the countryside continued to improve. Estimates of the death toll during the Cultural Revolution, including civilians and Red Guards, vary greatly. An estimate of around , deaths is a widely accepted minimum figure, according to Maurice Meisner. During his leadership, Mao traveled outside China on only two occasions, both state visits to the Soviet Union.
When Mao stepped down as head of state on April 27, , further diplomatic state visits and travels abroad were undertaken by president Liu Shaoqi rather than Mao personally.
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Smoking may have played an important role in his declining health, for Mao was a heavy chain-smoker  during most of his adult life. It became a state secret that he suffered from multiple lung and heart ailments during his later years. Mao's last public appearance—and the last known photograph of him alive—was on May 27, , when he met the visiting Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto during the latter's one-day visit to Beijing.
Mao Zedong died nearly four days later just after midnight, at , on September 9, , at age The Communist Party of China delayed the announcement of his death until later that day, when a radio message broadcast across the nation announced the news of Mao's passing while appealing for party unity. Chairman Mao's official portrait was hung on the wall, with a banner reading: "Carry on the cause left by Chairman Mao and carry on the cause of proletarian revolution to the end", until September On September 18, a somber cacophony of guns, sirens, whistles and horns all across China was spontaneously blown in observance of a three-minute silence, which everybody except those performing essential tasks was ordered to observe.
The final service on that day was concluded by Hua Guofeng's minute-long eulogy atop Tiananmen Gate. Mao remains a controversial figure and there is little agreement over his legacy both in China and abroad. Supporters generally credit and praise him for having unified China and for ending the previous decades of civil war. He is also credited for having improved the status of women in China and for improving literacy and education.
His policies caused the deaths of tens of millions of people in China during his year reign, more than any other 20th-century leader; the number of people who died under his regime range from 40 million to as many as 70 million. His supporters claim that he rapidly industrialised China; however, others have claimed that his policies such as the "Great Leap Forward" and the "Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution" were impediments to industrialisation and modernisation.
His supporters claim that his policies laid the groundwork for China's later rise to become an economic superpower, while others claim that his policies delayed economic development and that China's economy underwent its rapid growth only after Mao's policies had been widely abandoned. Mao's revolutionary tactics continue to be used by insurgents, and his political ideology continues to be embraced by many Communist organizations around the world. In mainland China, Mao is still revered by many members and supporters of the Communist Party and respected by a great number of the general population as the " Founding Father of modern China", credited for giving "the Chinese people dignity and self-respect.
However, Mao also has many Chinese critics. Opposition to him can lead to censorship or professional repercussions in mainland China,  and is often done in private settings such as the Internet. Even in China, key pillars of his economic theory have been publicly dismantled for the most part by market reformers like Deng Xiaoping and Zhao Ziyang , who succeeded him as leaders of the Communist Party. Though the Chinese Communist Party , which Mao led to power, has rejected in practice the economic fundamentals of much of Mao's ideology, it retains for itself many of the powers established under Mao's reign: it controls the Chinese army, police, courts and media and does not permit multi-party elections at the national or local level, except in Hong Kong.
Thus it is difficult to gauge the true extent of support for the Chinese Communist Party and Mao's legacy within mainland China. For its part, the Chinese government continues to officially regard Mao as a national hero. On December 25, , China opened the Mao Zedong Square to visitors in his home town of central Hunan Province to mark the th anniversary of his birth. There continue to be disagreements on Mao's legacy. Former Party official Su Shachi has opined that "he was a great historical criminal, but he was also a great force for good. He only buried alive scholars, while we buried 46, In our suppression of the counter-revolutionaries, did we not kill some counter-revolutionary intellectuals?
I once debated with the democratic people: You accuse us of acting like Ch'in-shih-huang, but you are wrong; we surpass him times. The People's Republic of China under Mao exhibited the oppressive tendencies that were discernible in all the major absolutist regimes of the twentieth century. Each of these regimes witnessed deliberately ordered mass 'cleansing' and extermination. Others, such as Philip Short , reject such comparisons in Mao: A Life , arguing that whereas the deaths caused by Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia were largely systematic and deliberate, the overwhelming majority of the deaths under Mao were unintended consequences of famine.
Short argues, "Mao's tragedy and his grandeur were that he remained to the end in thrall to his own revolutionary dreams He freed China from the straitjacket of its Confucian past, but the bright Red future he promised turned out to be a sterile purgatory.
Mao's English interpreter Sidney Rittenberg wrote in his memoir The Man Who Stayed Behind that whilst Mao "was a great leader in history", he was also "a great criminal because, not that he wanted to, not that he intended to, but in fact, his wild fantasies led to the deaths of tens of millions of people.
He put no value on human life. The deaths of others meant nothing to him. For example, they note that Mao was well aware that his policies would be responsible for the deaths of millions. While discussing labour-intensive projects such as waterworks and making steel, Mao said to his inner circle in November "Working like this, with all these projects, half of China may well have to die. If not half, one-third, or one-tenth—50 million—die. Thomas Bernstein of Columbia University argues that this quotation is taken out of context, claiming:. The Chinese original, however, is not quite as shocking.
In the speech, Mao talks about massive earthmoving irrigation projects and numerous big industrial ones, all requiring huge numbers of people. If the projects, he said, are all undertaken simultaneously "half of China's population unquestionably will die; and if it's not half, it'll be a third or ten percent, a death toll of 50 million people. Anhui wants to do so much, which is quite all right, but make it a principle to have no deaths. And he exposes the extent of the violence used against the peasants": . Mass killings are not usually associated with Mao and the Great Leap Forward, and China continues to benefit from a more favourable comparison with Cambodia or the Soviet Union.
But as fresh and abundant archival evidence shows, coercion, terror and systematic violence were the foundation of the Great Leap, and between and , by a rough approximation, some 6 to 8 per cent of those who died were tortured to death or summarily killed—amounting to at least 3 million victims. And all of them shared an ideology in which the end justified the means. In , having lost millions of people in his province, Li Jingquan compared the Great Leap Forward to the Long March in which only one in ten had made it to the end: 'We are not weak, we are stronger, we have kept the backbone.
He also notes that "In a chilling precursor of Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, villagers in Qingshui and Gansu called these projects the 'killing fields'. The United States placed a trade embargo on the People's Republic as a result of its involvement in the Korean War , lasting until Richard Nixon decided that developing relations with the PRC would be useful in dealing with the Soviet Union. The television series Biography stated: "[Mao] turned China from a feudal backwater into one of the most powerful countries in the World The Chinese system he overthrew was backward and corrupt; few would argue the fact that he dragged China into the 20th century.
But at a cost in human lives that is staggering. Wasserstrom of the University of California, Irvine compares China's relationship to Mao Zedong to Americans' remembrance of Andrew Jackson : both countries regard the leaders in a positive light, despite their respective roles in devastating policies. Jackson forcibly moved Native Americans , resulting in thousands of deaths, while Mao was at the helm during the violent years of the Cultural Revolution and the Great Leap Forward: . Though admittedly far from perfect, the comparison is based on the fact that Jackson is remembered both as someone who played a significant role in the development of a political organization the Democratic Party that still has many partisans, and as someone responsible for brutal policies toward Native Americans that are now referred to as genocidal.
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Both men are thought of as having done terrible things yet this does not necessarily prevent them from being used as positive symbols. At times Jackson, for all his flaws, is invoked as representing an egalitarian strain within the American democratic tradition, a self-made man of the people who rose to power via straight talk and was not allied with moneyed interests. Mao stands for something roughly similar. Mao's military writings continue to have a large amount of influence both among those who seek to create an insurgency and those who seek to crush one, especially in manners of guerrilla warfare, at which Mao is popularly regarded as a genius.
Mao had successfully applied Mobile Warfare in the Korean War, and was able to encircle, push back and then halt the UN forces in Korea, despite the clear superiority of UN firepower. Let us imagine how many people would die if war breaks out. There are 2. If it is a little higher, it could be half I say that if the worst came to the worst and one-half dies, there will still be one-half left, but imperialism would be razed to the ground and the whole world would become socialist.
After a few years there would be 2. But historians dispute the sincerity of Mao's words. Mao's poems and writings are frequently cited by both Chinese and non-Chinese. The official Chinese translation of President Barack Obama 's inauguration speech used a famous line from one of Mao's poems.
The ideology of Maoism has influenced many Communists, mainly in the Third World , including revolutionary movements such as Cambodia 's Khmer Rouge ,  Peru 's Shining Path , and the Nepalese revolutionary movement. Under the influence of Mao's agrarian socialism and Cultural Revolution , Cambodia's Pol Pot conceived of his disastrous Year Zero policies which purged the nation of its teachers, artists and intellectuals and emptied its cities, resulting in the Cambodian genocide.
China itself has moved sharply away from Maoism since Mao's death, and most people outside of China who describe themselves as Maoist regard the Deng Xiaoping reforms to be a betrayal of Maoism, in line with Mao's view of " Capitalist roaders " within the Communist Party. As the Chinese government instituted free market economic reforms starting in the late s and as later Chinese leaders took power, less recognition was given to the status of Mao. This accompanied a decline in state recognition of Mao in later years in contrast to previous years when the state organised numerous events and seminars commemorating Mao's th birthday.
Nevertheless, the Chinese government has never officially repudiated the tactics of Mao. In the mids, Mao Zedong's picture began to appear on all new renminbi currency from the People's Republic of China. This was officially instituted as an anti-counterfeiting measure as Mao's face is widely recognised in contrast to the generic figures that appear in older currency. On March 13, , a story in the People's Daily reported that a proposal had been made to print the portraits of Sun Yat-sen and Deng Xiaoping. Mao gave contradicting statements on the subject of personality cults.
In , as a response to the Khrushchev Report that criticised Joseph Stalin , Mao stated that personality cults are "poisonous ideological survivals of the old society", and reaffirmed China's commitment to collective leadership. In , Mao proposed the Socialist Education Movement SEM in an attempt to educate the peasants to resist the "temptations" of feudalism and the sprouts of capitalism that he saw re-emerging in the countryside from Liu's economic reforms.
Party members were encouraged to carry a copy with them, and possession was almost mandatory as a criterion for membership. Over the years, Mao's image became displayed almost everywhere, present in homes, offices and shops. His quotations were typographically emphasised by putting them in boldface or red type in even the most obscure writings.
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By using our website you consent to all cookies in accordance with our updated Cookie Notice. Announced in by President Xi Jinping, a brand new double trade corridor is set to reopen channels between China and its neighbours in the west: most notably Central Asia, the Middle East and Europe. The project has proved vast, expensive and controversial. Four years after it was first unveiled, the question remains:.
One strong incentive is that Trans-Eurasian trade infrastructure could bolster poorer countries to the south of China, as well as boost global trade. Domestic regions are also expected to benefit — especially the less-developed border regions in the west of the country, such as Xinjiang. Among domestic markets set to gain from future trade are Chinese companies — such as those in transport and telecoms — which now look poised to grow into global brands. Chinese manufacturing also stands to gain. There's no doubt that China is growing into a geopolitical heavyweight, stepping into the breach left by the United States on matters of free trade and climate change.
He explains: "The superpower status the US has achieved is to a great extent grounded on the security blanket it offered to its allies. Geopolitically, China decided a long time ago that security was too expensive an offer to make. Instead, this new superpower may offer connectivity. If combined with enhanced global connectivity, China's enormous gravity could become an even more meaningful engine for the global economy," Liu adds.
Chinese companies are already behind several energy projects, including oil and gas pipelines between China and Russia, Kazakhstan and Myanmar. Even after the end of the cold war, Washington continued tacitly to approve. Arms sales between the two countries soared. No wonder, then, that to Israel the Phalcon deal and the Harpy upgrade agreement seemed merely a case of business as usual. In March , almost six years after the Harpy debacle, Chinese military officials and their Israeli counterparts renewed their security relationship in a first-time visit to Israel by a delegation of Chinese military officials, and seven months later in a reciprocal IDF visit to China led by Brigadier General Avi Benayahu.
Throughout, Israel has been careful to abide by the agreement with Washington not to sell defense equipment to China. That agreement, however, does not prevent the Israeli military from buying equipment from China. Reportedly, both the IDF and the Israeli police have purchased Chinese-made drones that take part in non-classified operations by Israeli ground forces; the IDF has reportedly sought as well to acquire additional drones and spare parts pending completion of a project to develop an Israel-made drone with similar capabilities.
This, too, is a breakthrough: the first time actual Chinese defense equipment has been used by Israeli security forces. There is no reason to believe it will be the last. It is abundantly clear what China wants from its growing ties with Israel: high-tech leverage and a strong geopolitical presence in the Middle East. The remaining question is what Israel wants, and what, for better or for worse, is involved in getting it. Israel wants capital, clearly, and a booming market for export sales—especially as a hedge against the threatened if so far unlikely possibility of European divestment.
No less clearly, Israel has strategic considerations in mind, many of them connected with the dangerously chaotic aftereffects of the withdrawal of American power from the region. But Israel is also very much aware of the risks that loom in its embrace of Beijing. But it remains to be seen how much influence Israel actually can wield. With India, by contrast, Israel has had greater success on this front. The Harpy incident offers a good illustration here. Two decades after Israel sold the original system to China, it was revealed that, at an international defense exhibition in Abu Dhabi, the Chinese had unveiled their own version of the killer anti-radar drone that bore an uncanny resemblance to the original Israeli design.
For Washington, this is no small point. With the decline of the U. Sixth Fleet in the eastern Mediterranean, U. As an Israeli participant at a recent Hudson Institute conference cautioned:. Israel is working itself out of. If asked whether the U. Navy ships in Haifa port, which will be operated by the Chinese, I would recommend against that. The Chinese port operators will be able to monitor closely U. Significantly, the information systems and new infrastructure integral to the ports and the likelihood of information- and electronic-surveillance systems jeopardize U.
A few examples from the domestic scene: the Wenzhou high-speed train collision in that killed 40 and left injured; the auto-parts factory fire in Kushan that killed 68; the explosion at a chemical storage plant in Tianjin that cost lives; the Qingdao oil-pipeline disaster that left 62 people dead. No wonder, then, that the Association of Contractors and Builders in Israel has lobbied against Chinese involvement in construction and infrastructure projects, while labor unions, for their part, are alarmed that the Chinese workforce brought in for these projects will undercut wages across the board.
As the China-Israel nexus tightens, such concerns are only likely to grow. It has simply taken longer for the problem to reach Israel; but it is there now, with a vengeance. How things turn out will depend not only on how Israel handles the challenge but also on the reaction of the U. In the words of Lee Branstetter, professor of economics and public policy at Carnegie Mellon University:.
The Pentagon is increasingly worried that artificial-intelligence capabilities acquired by Chinese firms through civilian investments or licensing deals could find their way into a new generation of Chinese weapons that would threaten American troops and American allies. The Pentagon is also worried that Israel could become a back door through which China could acquire capabilities that it could not get in the U.
If an American pilot were ever shot down by a Chinese missile powered by Israeli technology, it would be a real problem for the Israeli government. Today, Israel is making a high-risk bet that it can walk the tightrope between its alliance with the U. But that bet could end badly.